The great scientist and prominent public and political figure Jalal Alirza Aliyev was a full member of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Academies of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine and Belarus. Until the end of his life, he headed the Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity of the Institute of Botany, ANAS and the Department of Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants of the Institute of Crop Husbandry of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Jalal Aliyev started his scientific activity in 1951 at the Department of Plant Physiology of the Institute of Crop Husbandry of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Starting to work as a laboratory assistant, he rose to the position of head of the Department of Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants. In 1971, he created also a research group at the Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan. In 1974, this group was reorganized into the laboratory of the Molecular Bases of Bioenergetics at the Sector of Physicochemical Biology. In 1983, on the basis of this laboratory, a laboratory of Molecular Genetic Bases of Production Processes was created, which included the creative groups: Biochemistry of Photosynthesis, Genetic Engineering, Molecular organization of photosynthetic apparatus, Tissue culture, Photochemistry and Photobiotechnology of chloroplasts. In 2010, with the purpose of intensification and expansion of the researches conducted at the Department of Molecular Genetic Bases of Production Processes and meeting modern science demands, the department was renamed as the Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity. On June 30, 2014 at the general meeting of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, the decision was made to establish the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology on the basis of the Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity of the Institute of Botany, and the institute began its independent activity on July 1, 2016. The departments created by academic Jalal Aliyev at the institutes of Botany and Crop Husbandry made a great contribution to the world science in the field of the research of photosynthesis. As a result of these studies, signs and symptoms of photosynthesis closely correlated with the process of productivity were found. The 65-year scientific activity of academic Jalal Aliyev was devoted to the study of the theoretical bases of photosynthetic productivity of agricultural plants, especially wheat. Under his leadership, complex studies of photosynthesis and photorespiration were conducted. These studies cover the physiological, biophysical, biochemical and molecular genetic bases of plant productivity, as well as the structural and functional organization at all stages and forms of plant life from the molecular level to the whole plant level.