At the General Meeting of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences on June 30, 2014, a decision was made on the establishment of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies on the basis of the Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity of the Institute of Botany of ANAS and the institute began its independent activity since July 1, 2016. The Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity was founded in 1971 by professor Jalal Aliyev and started operating as a group. In 1974 this group became the Laboratory of Molecular Bases of Bioenergetics under the sector of Physicochemical Biology. In 1983 the Laboratory of Molecular-Genetic Bases of Production Processes was created on its base, which included creative groups of Biochemistry of Photosynthesis, Genetic Engineering, Molecular Organization of Photosynthetic Apparatus, Tissue Culture, Photochemistry of Chloroplasts and Photobiotechnology. At the end of 1988, Biochemistry of Photosynthesis, Genetic Engineering, Molecular Organization of Photosynthetic Apparatus, Tissue Culture and Artificial Climate groups became independent laboratories. On the base of these laboratories, including the creative groups of Photochemistry of Chloroplasts and Photobiotechnology, Department of Molecular-Genetic Bases of Production Processes was created at the Institute of Botany. Four new laboratories were established in 2005-2010 and its name changed to the Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity. Two international laboratories were established under the department in 2012. Currently, 3 departments, 5 international laboratories are operating at the institute. The number of employees is 112, including 59 researchers, 1 academic, 3 correspondent members of ANAS, 3 doctors of sciences and professors, 23 PhDs in biology. Master students are trained in 3 specialties (molecular biology, biotechnology and biochemistry).