The Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies of ANAS was established in 2016 on the basis of the Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity of the Institute of Botany, ANAS. The Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity was founded by a great scientist and socio-political leader, academician Jalal Aliyev at the Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1971.
Academician Jalal Aliyev laid the foundation of new directions of biological science in Azerbaijan in the 70s of the last century, including molecular biology, molecular genetics, gene, and cell biotechnology, mathematical biology, bioinformatics, and computational biology, defined the main directions of their development and formed a rich scientific school. In 1974, the group created by academician J.Aliyev became the laboratory of Molecular Bases of Bioenergetics in the sector of Physicochemical Biology. In 1983, on the basis of this laboratory, the laboratory of Molecular-genetic bases of productivity processes consisting of creative groups Biochemistry of Photosynthesis, Genetic Engineering, Molecular Organization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus, Tissue Culture, Photochemistry of Chloroplasts, and Photobiotechnology was established. At the end of 1988, these groups became independent laboratories, and on their basis, the Department of Molecular-Genetic Basis of Productive Processes was established. In 1989, the Bioinformatics Laboratory was established in the department. In 2010, the department was renamed the Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity and 3 new laboratories were established on its basis - Photobioenergetics, Cell Regulatory Systems, and Bioadaptation Laboratories. In 2012, for the first time in Azerbaijan, 2 international laboratories were established under the department: Laboratories of Computational Structural Biology and Molecular Biotechnology. At the General Meeting of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences held on June 30, 2014, a decision was made to establish the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies, ANAS on the basis of the Department of Fundamental Problems of Biological Productivity of the Institute of Botany, ANAS. On March 1, 2016, the Institute was registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Azerbaijan and started operating independently on July 1, 2016. In 2016, two international laboratories were established at the Institute: Proteomics and Bionanotechnology Laboratories, and in 2019, the Molecular Bioengineering Laboratory was established. In 2021 by decision No 6/9 of the Presidium of ANAS dated January 28, 2021, The Population Genomics Laboratory was established at the Institute.
At present, the Institute has 14 laboratories, including 5 international laboratories. Research in these laboratories is carried out in close cooperation with international research centers and universities.
The Institute has 120 employees, including 72 scientists, 1 academician, 4 correspondent members of ANAS, 6 doctors of sciences and professors, 21 doctors of philosophy in biology.
Since 2019, ED 1.25 Dissertation Council has been functioning at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies of ANAS for the purpose of organizing the defense of PhD and doctoral dissertations in molecular biology, biochemistry, and plant physiology. The dissertation council consists of 18 people. A Seminar Council functions on the above-mentioned specialties under the Dissertation Council, which consists of a total of 21 specialists, 7 in each specialty.